American Lung Association: “COPD Causes and Risk Factors,” “What Is the Life Expectancy of Someone with Pulmonary Fibrosis?”
Albert A. Rizzo, MD, chief medical officer, American Lung Association, Newark, DE.
Mayo Clinic: “COPD.”
Cureus: “Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: The Changes Made.”
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: “Life expectancy and years of life lost in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Findings from the NHANES III Follow-up Study.”
New England Journal of Medicine: “The Body-Mass Index, Airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise Capacity Index in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.”
Thorax: “The BODE index: a new grading system in COPD.”
Chest: “Dyspnea Is a Better Predictor of 5-Year Survival Than Airway Obstruction in Patients With COPD.”